Monitor the amount of grain starch to avoid acidosis in cattle.
As farmers put together least-cost rations over winter, many of you may be using corn as an ingredient. For many farmers, corn stored on farm will be the cheapest source of energy. It is worth reminding cattlemen of the dangers of acidosis when feeding higher levels of corn.
What is acidosis?
Acidosis is a nutritional disease that is caused by cattle consuming too much starch (primarily grain). Grains are rapidly fermentable in the rumen. Swift absorption of acids produced by that rapid fermentation leads to acidosis. Cattle consuming high grain rations, high sugar diets, or even cows grazing stalks that are host to too much ear drop or down corn could be victims of acidosis.
What cattle eat
From a cow/calf and backgrounder perspective, the majority of the diet will be made up of hay or some other type of forage. In this case, supplementing the forage with corn (starch) can be beneficial to provide needed energy in the animal’s diet. However, if the supplementation becomes higher than 0.5% of the animals body weight it could negatively affect fiber digestion.
- Poorer fiber digestion can start the shift in population of the bacteria in the rumen.
- Higher corn (starch) inclusion can quickly shift the bacteria populations and subsequently the pH.
- The pH lowers in the presence of higher starch and, as a result, the bacteria and protozoa that digest fiber greatly decrease in activity and quantity.
Challenges of cattle diets
Corn processing can also be a contributing factor to acidosis. Corn that is ground too fine can cause issues due to the fermentation rate. Corn that is more powder than kernel will promote rapid fermentation, which can cause a quick shift in the bacteria and as a result the acidity.
Dried Distillers Grains (DDGS) are naturally acidic in nature. Sulfuric acid is part of the flush process in the co-product stream. As a result of this, sulfur levels are a good indicator of how low the pH is. More sulfur, the lower the pH. DDGS is also small in particle size and fairly rapidly fermented. These characteristics can lead to lower rumen pH despite the absence of starch.
Although variable, most corn silage harvested contains a fairly high corn grain percentage. Corn silage is extremely palatable and cows can easily overeat. This can pose similar problems to increased corn inclusion rates. If corn silage intakes are not limited, it may very well contribute to acidosis.
Cattlemen and nutritionists that are enticed by the least-cost advantages of corn silage, corn, and DDGS should be cautious. Acidosis can decrease performance, but more importantly, can cause laminitis which can ruin hoof structure. Mistakes in nutrition that decrease the longevity of cows are simply not acceptable with replacement costs. Avoiding acidosis will maintain feedlot performance and ensure longevity in developing replacements.