Subsurface tunnels can be divided into feeding tunnels and main tunnels. Feeding tunnels tend to meander or wind back and forth. They commonly dead-end without joining another tunnel. Feeding tunnels are created by the mole when searching for food and are rarely reused. Main tunnels are straighter tunnels that connect other tunnels or mounds of loose soil. These main tunnels are used almost daily by the mole.
Moles spend the winter deeper in the soil. As spring approaches, they burrow closer to the soil surface, creating the first subsurface tunnels when the root zone soil temperature is warm enough for earthworms to be active. They feed heavily throughout the spring, summer, and into fall when cooling temperatures reduce food availability.
Moles reproduce in the spring and apparently only have 1 litter per year. Much reproduction occurs in stable, natural areas where there is plenty of food such as meadows, old fields, and wooded areas. Young moles leave the home range and are commonly the ones that become pests in managed turf. Since moles normally have a home range of 1 to almost 3 acres, it is likely that mole tunnels in a residential lawn are being produced by a single mole.